World’s Cultural Heritages in Kaesong

Kaesong, one of the major tourist attractions of Korea, is a city with many historic relics.

It existed for about 500 years as the capital city of the Koryo Dynasty (918–1392) which was the first unified state in the history of the Korean nation.

Some of the historic relics in Kaesong were registered as the world’s cultural heritages in June Juche 102(2013). They are the Mausoleum of King Wang Kon, the Mausoleum of King Kyonghyo, the Kaesong Castle, the South Gate of Kaesong, Sonjuk Bridge, the Monument to Loyalty of Jong Mong Ju, the Sungyang School, the Koryo Songgyungwan University, Manwoltae, the Kaesong Chomsongdae Observatory, Seven Tombs and Myong Tombs.

The Kaesong Castle was built as the capital castle (outer castle) of Koryo between 1009 and 1029 and the South Gate of Kaesong between 1391 and 1393. There is a bell of Yonbok Temple at the gatehouse of the South Gate of Kaesong, which weighs about 14 tons.

Sonjuk Bridge is one of the oldest stone bridges remaining in Korea at present. Jong Mong Ju was killed on the bridge, who was a high-ranking official, able military strategist and diplomat in the closing years of the Koryo Dynasty.

The monument was built in praise of his loyalty.

The Sungyang School was built at the site of the house in which Jong Mong Ju had lived. It was used as a place for disseminating Confucianism as well as for education at that time.

The Koryo Songgyungwan University, one of the oldest educational institutions of the world, was built in 992 into the highest educational institution of the state during the Koryo Dynasty. A lot of famous persons were produced there.

Manwoltae is the site of royal palace during the Koryo Dynasty. Many historic remains were unearthed there.

The Kaesong Chomsongdae Observatory was an establishment for astronomical weather observation. Only its pillars remain at present. The Kaesong Chomsongdae Observatory belongs to the observatories in the earliest period of the world.

The Seven Tombs at the foot of Mt. Mansu belong to the Koryo Dynasty. They are regarded as those of persons related to the royal family in the closing years of the Koryo Dynasty in consideration of their scale, structure and relics.


There are three Myong Tombs. One of them is recognized as the tomb of the 29th King of the Koryo Dynasty.

The historic relics associated with the wisdom and talents of the Korean nation are preserved with care thanks to the state policy for protection of the national heritages.